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what are the types of drugs and their effects on body

 
Taking Medication
 
Tablets should leave in an upright sitting position with enough liquid (at least 125 ml of water). The best time to take. it is necessary to achieve the best possible effectiveness and tolerance. With certain drugs (eg certain antibiotics). it is particularly important to observe the correct time of intake to achieve. an optimal and even concentration of active ingredients. Even when the symptoms subside, the duration of the treatment. prescribed by the doctor should cohere to. otherwise, the therapeutic effect delayed or reduced. If antibiotic therapy stopped, antibiotic resistance can develop, for example.
 
what are the types of drugs and their effects on the body?
 
Once a day: The medicines should always take at the same time each day. Twice a day: To keep the active ingredient level in the body high enough, it should take every twelve hours. Three times a day: The medicine should take every eight hours. When choosing the time to actually take it. the time to sleep should take into account so that the interval of eight hours is not exceeded. Addiction to food
 
without a meal: The medicines can take without a meal, ie before, with, or after a meal. On an empty stomach: The medicine should take 30 to 60 minutes before meals or at least two hours after meals. Before eating: 30 to 60 minutes before the meal, the medication must take when this information gave About eating: Some medicines (eg certain painkillers) can cause the stomach. irritation when empty and shosofore take during or shortly after eating. After eating: It should take two hours after eating so that the food has already left the stomach. Time of day For some active substances, the time of day at which the medicine take is important. Certain body functions base on natural body flow. the kidneys, or the cardiovascular system). This can also influence the effect of drugs.
 
in the morning:
thyroid hormones and cortisone preparations should take early in the morning. unless otherwise prescribed by the doctor. in the evening: Certain rheumatic drugs are better tolerated in the evening. Some antidepressants should take in the evening because of their sedating (sleep-inducing) effect. So-called dosing aids provide a better overview. These are especially helpful when a patient needs several different drugs.
 
Divisibility of medicinal products:
In principle, tablets should only divide. if this is possible according to the instructions for use. In this case, many tablets have a designed scoreline. If the information on whether a division is possible is not contained. in the instructions for use. the tablet should only. divide (halved or quartered) after consulting a doctor or pharmacist. When dividing tablets, the patient should be careful to keep the pieces of the. the same size to ensure that each part contains the same amount of active ingredient. A so-called tablet divider can use here.
 
The following dosage forms should never divide without consulting a doctor or pharmacist:
 
Film :
coated tablets Film-coated tablets have a coating that protects. the active ingredient from stomach acid so that it is only released in the intestine. too, the film makes swallowing easier and covers an unpleasant taste. For these reasons, film-coated tablets should not take but swallowed whole.
 
Retard tablets / capsules:
In the case of retarded dosage forms, the release of the active ingredient delay or slowed down. Even if it is only taken once a day, this dosage form can maintain a certain level of the active ingredient in the blood. If the prolonged-release tablet divide or a retard capsule opens. the active ingredient release in the body and an overdose can result.
 
Interactions:
The careful and correct intake of medicines is a prerequisite. for ensuring optimal effectiveness and safety. The simultaneous consumption of food and medicines can have negative consequences. There may be a delay in the uptake of the active ingredient (absorption) or a change in the mechanism of action. Delayed absorption affects active ingredients that absorb in the intestine. The reason for this is the delayed emptying of the stomach due to food. This mechanism is also used, for example, with paracetamol. (a used pain reliever and fever medication). Paracetamol, so, works much faster when taken on an empty stomach. In general, the rate of resorption is of great importance in short-term therapy (e.g. for headaches). In long-term therapies, ensuring a constant and enough concentration. of the active ingredient is more important.
 
The following foods and medicines should not take together:
 
  • Alcohol :
 
Alcohol, like many medicines, broke down in the liver. Simultaneous use with certain drugs (e.g. certain antibiotics (cephalosporins, metronidazole). some agents against fungal infections (ketoconazole, griseofulvin)) can lead to a higher concentration. of active substances in the organism and an increased or prolonged effect. The combination with painkillers, sleeping pills, sedatives, or antidepressants should also avoid. as the central depressant effect and the side effects can increase. When taking drugs, alcohol should generally avoid.
 
  • Coffee, tea:
  • Iron tablets that use, for example, in so-called anemia, should not take together with coffee or tea. Coffee and tea contain tannic acid. This binds to the ingested iron in the stomach and prevents it from absorbing into the body. Orange juice, but, can support better absorption.
 
  • Grapefruit juice:
  • Grapefruits contain certain substances that inhibit the breakdown. of many drugs in the liver. In this way, the active ingredient concentration can. Increase threefold, which can result in severe overdosing. This applies, for example, to some antihypertensive drugs. (calcium channel blockers), cholesterol-lowering drugs (statins). and drugs that inhibit the body’s own defense system (immunosuppressants).
 
  • Milk: The calcium contained in milk can influence its effect if it takes at the same time as a drug. Certain antibiotics and bisphosphonates (agents against bone loss. (osteoporosis)) together with calcium form soluble compounds and can. so be more difficult to absorb by the body.
 
  • Foods containing: vitamin K plays an important role in blood clotting. It found in green vegetables. (broccoli, lettuce, cabbage, asparagus, spinach, peas, beans) and in eggs. The effect of blood-thinning drugs (e.g. Marcoumar). which use, for example, after a heart attack or when there is a risk of thrombosis. (risk of blockage of a blood vessel due to the formation of a blood clot). can reduce foods containing vitamin K. Important – this does not apply to heparins.
 
  • Licorice: Licorice can increase the loss of potassium when taken with diuretic drugs. (e.g. diuretics) and thereby increase the side effects. This can lead to muscle weakness, tiredness, or irregular heartbeat.
 
Salami, cheese, sauerkraut, and white beans The protein product tyramine. which is usually broken down in the body by the enzyme monoamine oxidase. cannot break down while taking certain antidepressants (monoamine oxidase inhibitors). This can result in increased blood pressure. headaches, and, in the worst case, cerebral hemorrhage. When taking medication, always pay attention to the information in the leaflet. to avoid interactions between medication and food. If you have any questions, ask your doctor or pharmacist.
 
Use of adrenaline auto-injectors:
 
The European Medicines Agency (EMA) recommends the following measures. to ensure safety and success. use of adrenaline auto-injectors:
 
Introduction of new training material: Patients should always carry two auto-injectors with them to be on the safe side Action at the EU level Adrenaline auto-injectors uses for emergency self-treatment of anaphylaxis. (severe allergic reactions) while the patient is waiting for emergency medical care.
 
EMA: 
 
The European Medicines Agency (EMA) carried out. a review due to concerns that the auto-injectors.  currently available only deliver adrenaline under the skin instead of. into the muscle and thus delay its effectiveness. After evaluating the available data. the Committee for Medicinal Products for Human Use (CHMP). came to the conclusion that intramuscular. administration can ensure a faster, more effective onset of action. in the treatment of anaphylaxis. The CHMP argues that several factors are responsible. for whether the administered adrenaline actually reaches the muscle as intended. such as the length of the needle. the thickness of the subcutaneous fat layer (subcutaneous fat layer),
 
the teaching of the patient:
 
The CHMP concluded that user training is of paramount importance. Marketing authorization holders market adrenaline autoinjectors are so encouraged. To develop more effective teaching materials for patients and. also for health professionals to be able to ensure optimal use. A training device made available so that patients can practice. as well as audio-visual training material. Improve the use of the auto-injector. too a checklist for doctors intended to ensure that patients. informed before using the auto-injector.
 
conclusion:
 
extra warnings provided in the product information and package leaflet, including a recommendation.  Those patients should always carry two auto-injectors with them for safety. too, there should also be instructions for use for family members. carers, or teachers on the use of the auto-injector.

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